Nata de Coco

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Cellulose producing Bacteria

Food and edible jargon

It seems a much more common thing than one thinks... Easy to find on rotten fruits, in beer or wines, simple to isolate and ready to use for edible products etc. Kombucha brewers welcome (File:2019_kombucha_bookChapter.pdf)

While kombucha is a complex symbiotic mixture of different organisms, other pure cultures can be isolated of cellulose producing bacteria, usually in the family of Acetobacter xylinum or related, now taxonomically called Komagataeibacter xylinus.

NataDeCoco googleSearch.png

While many scientists talk about "novel nano materials produced by bacteria", BNC (Bacterial NanoCellulose), seemingly invented in the 90ies... it turns out under the name Nato de Coco to be a commercial edible desert product for a loooong time coming from the Phillipines and also very wide-spread in Indonesia. Easy to get the started cultures from the local tradional markets or agro supply stores. See below.

"Homemade Nata de Coco (super easy with only 3 ingredients)"

Nata de coco is common in Indonesian desserts, and probably also in some Asian desserts. We all love nata de coco, especially when it is added to pudding mixture or sweet drinks. It is so refreshing and delicious.

Lately, I found some very easy recipes to make nata de coco at home. This was so easy and I didn’t even need fresh coconut flesh. All I needed were jelly powder, coconut water, and sweetened condensed milk. Yes, only 3 ingredients and it only took less than 5 minutes to make it. You can add sugar if you want it to be sweeter.

This was good and absolutely healthier than store bought nata de coco. I still keep them in the fridge (and I can’t stop munching on them) and hopefully, I can make some sweet dessert before I finish them all by myself……….

Sciency talk

On an acetic ferment which forms cellulose

Brown, J. Chem. Soc., Trans., 1886,49, 432-439 Download book here: File:Bacterial Nanocellulose.pdf

Brown 1885 OnAceticFerment.png

DURING my work on the chemical actions of Bacterium aceti, described in a previous paper (this vol., p. 172), I met with the peculiar acetic ferment commonly known as the “vinegar plant” or “mother”. This ferment differed so much in appearance from any form of B. aceti I had noticed, that it seemed probable it was a distinct organism. In order to ascertain this, and also to enable me to study its chemical actions, I obtained pure cultivations by a combination of the fractional and dilution methods in the way I described in my previous paper. The nutrient solutions used for this purpose were composed of red wine diluted with half its bulk of water, and rendered acid with 1 per cent. of acetic acid in the form of ordinary vinegar. This liquid strongly favours the growth of the acetic ferments, and is at the same time very prejudicial to the growth of most other organisms.”

Commercial BNC.png

"Nanocelluloses: A New Family of Nature‐Based Materials"

Klemm, D. , et. al (2011), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 50: 5438-5466. doi:10.1002/anie.201001273 Download .pdf here: File:2011_Nanocelluloses.pdf

When BNC fleeces were submerged in a dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for several hours, individual MWCNTs adhered strongly to the surface and inside of the BNC fleeces. Conductivity measurements demonstrated that the incorporation of carbon nanotubes is a suitable way to prepare electrically conductive BNC membranes.

Transparent and electrically conducting films were also fabricated by the adsorption of single-walled carbon nano-tubes on bacterial cellulose membranes embedded in a transparent polymer resin. In this way, films with a wide range of transmittance and surface-resistance properties could be obtained by controlling the immersion time and carbon-nanotube concentration. A transparent conducting film with a transmittance and surface resistance of 77.1 % at 550 nm and 2.8 kW sq �1 , respectively, was fabricated from a 0.01 wt % carbon-nanotube dispersion during an immersion time of 3 h. The transparent conducting films were quite flexible and maintained their properties even after crumpling.

BNC layers have also been investigated as loudspeaker vibration films. It was demonstrated that these films have the advantages of simple manufacturing by bacterial biofabrication, good mechanical properties and thermal stability, good fundamental characteristics of a sound-vibration film, high specific elasticity and loss factor, long service life, and environmental friendliness.

Highly flexible, transparent, and conductive silver nanowire-attached bacterial cellulose conductors

Lv, P., Zhou, H., Zhao, M. et al. Cellulose (2018) 25: 3189. download .pdf here File:2018_HighlyFlexibleTransparentAndCo.pdf

AgNanowire BC membranes.png link title A simple, rapid method for developing conductive, ultrafine, and high aspect ratio silver nanowires (AgNWs) is reported. Transparent and flexible nanocomposites were fashioned from bacterial cellulose (BC) and AgNWs in a very straightforward and direct manner without the addition of materials or the need for specific facilities. The as-prepared BC/AgNWs composite thin films were able to demonstrate acceptable transparency (near 80% at 550 nm), high flexibility, good mechanical strength (18.95 MPa) and stable conductivity (7.46 Ω sq−1) under various bending states.

AgNanowire BC transparent.png

Bacterial NanoCellulose - A Sophisticated Multifunctional Material

Miguel Gama, Paul Gatenholm, Dieter Klemm, 2017, CRC Press

BNC bookCover.png

Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is an emerging nanomaterial with unique properties produced by several species of ubiquitous fermentation bacteria, most importantly Gluconacetobacter xylinus, previously known as Acetobacter xylinum. BNC has been used for a variety of commercial applications including textiles, cosmetics, and food products, and it has a high potential for medical applications.

Bacterial NanoCellulose: A Sophisticated Multifunctional Material provides the state of the art of scientific knowledge about the mechanism of cellulose production by bacteria along with pointing out challenges in expansion of BNC production in large scale. It provides the latest update on BNC structure and its modification, as well as comprehensive information about current and future applications of BNC.

Living materials with programmable functionalities grown from engineered microbial co-cultures


Biological systems assemble living materials that are autonomously patterned, can self-repair and can sense and respond to their environment. The field of engineered living materials aims to create novel materials with properties similar to those of natural biomaterials using genetically engineered organisms. Here, we describe an approach to fabricating functional bacterial cellulose-based living materials using a stable co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and bacterial cellulose-producing Komagataeibacter rhaeticus bacteria. Yeast strains can be engineered to secrete enzymes into bacterial cellulose, generating autonomously grown catalytic materials and enabling DNA-encoded modification of bacterial cellulose bulk properties. Alternatively, engineered yeast can be incorporated within the growing cellulose matrix, creating living materials that can sense and respond to chemical and optical stimuli. This symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast is a flexible platform for the production of bacterial cellulose-based engineered living materials with potential applications in biosensing and biocatalysis.

Full paper for download here: File:2020_LivingMaterial_synSCOBY.pdf

More references:

Design and Fashion Style

Fashio style scoby.png

Successful realization of natural self-grown fashion (SGF) has tremendous creative and practical potential, as well as a profound ecological effect on the fashion industry and the environment. From this publication.

"Growing materials has become more and more popular in design, so maybe growing things is closer and easier than we think," said Janusz.

See this article.

Malai coconutShoes.jpg

Found a nice company producing reinforced materials from nata de coco "Made from Malai".

Business Jargon

Jenacell company.png

From JeNaCell Company in Germany

epi nouvelle+ naturelle gently supports regeneration of sensitive skin -100% vegan. Free from other ingredients, epi nouvelle+ naturelle completely relies on the cooling, skin-relaxing effect of pure water.

epi nouvelle+ naturelle is therefore very well suited for post-treatment of peels, mesotherapy, laser therapy, skin intolerances such as perioral/ periorbital dermatitis, photodynamic therapy and follow-up treatment in aesthetic or surgical operations.

With the biocellic + product line, we offer a basic material for a variety of innovative technical solutions. The material biocellic+ has a multitude of extraordinary properties: in particular the high mechanical properties and thermal stability and the high chemical resistance.

biocellic + is therefore very suitable for use as a starting material for membranes, as filter materials for separation techniques, as a carrier material for catalysts or as a composite material for the fiber reinforcement of (bio) polymers. It is available as a nonwoven, film, spherical particle or fiber- 100% vegan.

Cultures and applications

Nata de Coco aka Komagataeibacter xylinus

The best!!!

This one is the main bacteria that is commonly used, but has many names and strains....

Komagataeibacter xylinus, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum or Gluconacetobacter xylinus

Nata de Soya

It's what the honfies used for their SOYA C(O)U(L)TURE

Gluconacetobacter hansenii (present from Isaac from Chile)

What is it?

the name of your traveling companion is Gluconacetobacter hansenii (cellulose strain).

Below is the media for optimal cellulose production, but we use it for culturing etc.

Isaac chile.jpg

Hestrin–Schramm (HS) medium (for 500mL)

  • 2.5g yeast extract (0.5% w/v)
  • 2.5g peptone (0.5% w/v)
  • 1.35g Na2HPO4 (0.27% w/v)
  • 0.75g citric acid (0.15% w/v)
  • 10g glucose (2%w/v) - NB autoclave this separately as 20% glucose, and add 50ml to 450ml of the rest of the media

Hestrin–Schramm (HS) medium (for 1L)

  • 5g yeast extract (0.5% w/v)
  • 5g peptone (0.5% w/v)
  • 2.7g Na2HPO4 (0.27% w/v)
  • 1.5g citric acid (0.15% w/v)
  • 20g glucose (2%w/v) - NB autoclave this separately as 20% glucose, and add 50ml to 450ml of the rest of the media

other tips

I think is no problem with split the amount I gave you. To accomplish it, you should inoculate the media with a piece of the cellulose-bacteria layer and left it growing without agitation at room temperature (you only have to be careful with the contamination at the moment of inoculation!).

You can get a lot more information from this group of iGEM:

If you are interested on dye the cellulose with bacterial pigments, we usually do this way:

  • grow the cellulose paper
  • remove the excess of media
  • use the cellulose paper as substrate, by plating (with L-shape spreader) a pigment producer O.N. bacterial culture over the wet cellulose paper.
  • Bacterias will grow on that side of the paper and produce the dye. If you want to have both sides dyed, repeat the process on the other side.

I hope it is clear :)

have a good time on Japan and don't hesitate to ask me if you need something.

Experiments in Lifepatch

NataDeCoco Lab-Lifepatch.jpg

Experiments at Home - Zürich


The "pure" medium

Nata PureRecipe.jpg

Kinda like the HS medium...

  • First the glucose ("Traubenzucker" also known as dextrose) was boiled for 15 min, 40g / 200 ml "destillatgleiches Wasser" (kinda distilled water).
  • 0.8 l of "destillatgleiches Wasser" and a little bit of tap-water, boiled for a while

then adding:

  • 5g Yeast Extract (really old one i found in my box)
  • 5g Peptone
  • 1.5g Citric Acid
  • 2.7g K2HPO4 (Monopotassium phosphate or Dipotassium phosphate? I forgot... had only Potassium instead of Sodium...)
  • kinda 50 ml of the glucose solution... maybe 13-18g of glucose
  • 0.08 l of Acetobacter xylenum starter-culture

Swiss Kitchen Recpie

Nata kitchenRecipe.jpg
  • 3l Water
  • 20g Cenovis
  • 4.5g Citric Acid
  • 3g Fertilizer, liquid (NPK 4-5-6 with trace elements, Mioplant Orchideendünger)
  • ca 25g of Glucose aka "Traubenzucker"

Boiled for 10 min in a pot, then left to cool down in 1.5 l glassjar, adding few small pieces of pellicle from starter culture, and flat plastic bowl. After cooling adding the following

  • Jar: 0.08 l of Acetobacter xylenum starter-culture
  • Bowl: 0.15 l of Acetobacter xylenum starter-culture

Coconut Recipe

Nata CocoRecipe.jpg
  • 0.7l Coconut water (Alnatura Coco drink)
  • 2l Water
  • 4.5g Citric Acid
  • 3g Fertilizer, liquid (NPK 4-5-6 with trace elements, Mioplant Orchideendünger)
  • 1g K2HPO4 (Dipotassium phosphate)
  • 3 tablespoons of Glucose aka "Traubenzucker"

Boiled for 10 min in a pot, then left to cool down in 1 l glassjar, adding few small pieces of pellicle from starter culture, and flat plastic bowl. After cooling adding the following

  • Jar: 0.08 l of Acetobacter xylenum starter-culture
  • Bowl: 0.1 l of Acetobacter xylenum starter-culture

Akbar's Super Fermentation Recipe

Akbars recipe.jpg

How to make it

Book cover.jpg

Download the translated book here: File:Nata_de_Coco-Book_translated_small.pdf

And just found this tool to convert pages of a book into a foldabe booklet with ubuntu.

pdfbook2 ./Pin_BioTransLab.pdf --short-edge --resolution=300 --outer-margin=0 --inner-margin=30 --top-margin=0 --bottom-margin=0

Nata de Coco Book Translation

Nata Book Recipe.jpg


Taken from this website


  • Coconut water
  • Acetic acid
  • Refined sugar
  • Nata starter
  • Ammonium phosphate


  • Weighing scale
  • Strainers
  • Wide-mouthed glass jars or basins
  • Kettles


  1. The collected coconut water is filtered through a cheesecloth. One hundred (100 gms.) refined sugar and 5 grams monobasic ammonium phosphate is mixed for every liter of coconut water in a container. The container is covered and the mixture allowed to boil. It is then allowed to cool after boiling and 6.9 ml. of glacial acetic acid is added.
  2. 110-150 ml. of starter (available at ITDI) is added to the mixture. It is subsequently transferred to big mouthed clean jars leaving ample space atop mixture and covered with clean cheese cloth. The culture is allowed to grow at room temperature for 15 days or more. Note: Do not move jars during growth period.
  3. Harvest is ready after 15 days or more, making sure that all conditions are aseptic so as to enable one to reuse the remaining liquid which serves as starter for succeeding preparations.

Dessert Making. The “nata” is cut into cubes and is subjected to a series of boiling with fresh water until acidity is totally removed. One kilo of refined sugar is added for every kilo of nata and are mixed. It is brought to boiling until the “nata” cubes become transparent.

Where to get it?

Local sources "Nata de Coco"

NataDeCoco and Coconut.jpg

In Yogyakarta

AgroTekno Lab Store in Yogyakarta:

Buy it online

In Japan / Okinawa

Wild type isolation - Akbar's Workshop Protocal Translated

A. Making nata seedlings

  1. . Pineapple peeled, washed to produce pineapple meat. Pineapple meat is cut into small pieces, crushed, and the pulp is taken.
  2. . Pineapple pulp mixed with sugar and cooking water in a ratio of 6: 1: 3 until evenly distributed.
  3. . Put the mixture in a clean jar and cover in a filter cloth. Let stand for 2-3 weeks.
  4. . Leave uninterrupted for 2-3 weeks until a white layer or acetobacter xylinum seedlings are formed.

B. How to make nata:

  1. . Filter coconut water using a filter cloth then bring to a boil and chill.
  2. . Mix granulated sugar (100 g / l coconut water), 20 ml vinegar acid / l coconut water and Acetobacter xylinum seeds (170 ml) into coconut water in a mixing pan, then stir until evenly distributed. The mixture has acidity (pH) 3-4.
  3. . Enter the mixture into a natural jar with a mixture height of 4-5 cm, then cover with a cloth. Place the jar in a clean and safe place.
  4. . After 15-20 days of the fermentation process, a layer of nata is formed on the surface of the liquid with a thickness of 1-2 cm. Nata layer with a weight of + 200 g. The liquid under the nata is the liquid of the seed that can be used for making the next nata.

Harvesting nata.

  1. . The nata layer is carefully removed using a clean fork or clamp so that the liquid under the layer is not polluted. The liquid under the nata can be used as seedling liquid in subsequent processing.
  2. . Remove the membrane attached to the bottom of the nata, washed and cut in the form of cubes with a size of 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm and washed. Pour and soak the nata de coco pieces in a plastic bucket for 3 days and replace the immersion water every day. After that, nata boiled until boiling at 110oC for.
  3. . For 10-20 minutes. The purpose of soaking and boiling is to eliminate the sour taste.
  4. . Nata is put in the syrup then simmer at a temperature of 100oC + 15 minutes, after that if necessary can be added to the ingredients of vanilla or other fragrance and salt to taste, then left for 1 night. Make nata syrup in the ratio of 3 kg of cut nata products, 2 kg of sugar and 4.5 l of water are needed. First the sugar is poured into water, heat until dissolved and then strain.
  5. . Next, nata is packed in a plastic bag or jam jar with a ratio between solids and 3: 1 liquid, the bottle is tightly closed, then boiled in boiling water for 30 minutes. Lift and cool in the air with the lid on the bottom, then the bottle is labeled and ready to be marketed.

Isolating Komagataeibacter xylinus from Pineapple, Oki Wonder Style

Isolation OkiWonderJar.jpg

Coming soon...

Video instruction

Indo Kitchen Style

Getting the wild type starters from pineapple

Growing your own Nata de Coco at home


Same Same but different

Swiss sciency style

Indo Coconut style

Indo Factory style

Philippino 90ies style

Further info