Nata de Coco
- 1 Cellulose producing Bacteria
- 2 Cultures and applications
- 3 Experiments in Lifepatch
- 4 Experiments at Home - Zürich
- 5 How to make it
- 6 Where to get it?
- 7 Further info
Cellulose producing Bacteria
Food and edible jargon
It seems a much more common thing than one thinks... Easy to find on rotten fruits, in beer or wines, simple to isolate and ready to use for edible products etc. Kombucha brewers welcome (File:2019_kombucha_bookChapter.pdf)
While kombucha is a complex symbiotic mixture of different organisms, other pure cultures can be isolated of cellulose producing bacteria, usually in the family of Acetobacter xylinum or related, now taxonomically called Komagataeibacter xylinus.
While many scientists talk about "novel nano materials produced by bacteria", BNC (Bacterial NanoCellulose), seemingly invented in the 90ies... it turns out under the name Nato de Coco to be a commercial edible desert product for a loooong time coming from the Phillipines and also very wide-spread in Indonesia. Easy to get the started cultures from the local tradional markets or agro supply stores. See below.
"Homemade Nata de Coco (super easy with only 3 ingredients)"
Nata de coco is common in Indonesian desserts, and probably also in some Asian desserts. We all love nata de coco, especially when it is added to pudding mixture or sweet drinks. It is so refreshing and delicious.
Lately, I found some very easy recipes to make nata de coco at home. This was so easy and I didn’t even need fresh coconut flesh. All I needed were jelly powder, coconut water, and sweetened condensed milk. Yes, only 3 ingredients and it only took less than 5 minutes to make it. You can add sugar if you want it to be sweeter.
This was good and absolutely healthier than store bought nata de coco. I still keep them in the fridge (and I can’t stop munching on them) and hopefully, I can make some sweet dessert before I finish them all by myself……….
DURING my work on the chemical actions of Bacterium aceti, described in a previous paper (this vol., p. 172), I met with the peculiar acetic ferment commonly known as the “vinegar plant” or “mother”. This ferment differed so much in appearance from any form of B. aceti I had noticed, that it seemed probable it was a distinct organism. In order to ascertain this, and also to enable me to study its chemical actions, I obtained pure cultivations by a combination of the fractional and dilution methods in the way I described in my previous paper. The nutrient solutions used for this purpose were composed of red wine diluted with half its bulk of water, and rendered acid with 1 per cent. of acetic acid in the form of ordinary vinegar. This liquid strongly favours the growth of the acetic ferments, and is at the same time very prejudicial to the growth of most other organisms.”
Klemm, D. , et. al (2011), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 50: 5438-5466. doi:10.1002/anie.201001273 Download .pdf here: File:2011_Nanocelluloses.pdf
When BNC fleeces were submerged in a dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for several hours, individual MWCNTs adhered strongly to the surface and inside of the BNC fleeces. Conductivity measurements demonstrated that the incorporation of carbon nanotubes is a suitable way to prepare electrically conductive BNC membranes.
Transparent and electrically conducting films were also fabricated by the adsorption of single-walled carbon nano-tubes on bacterial cellulose membranes embedded in a transparent polymer resin. In this way, films with a wide range of transmittance and surface-resistance properties could be obtained by controlling the immersion time and carbon-nanotube concentration. A transparent conducting film with a transmittance and surface resistance of 77.1 % at 550 nm and 2.8 kW sq �1 , respectively, was fabricated from a 0.01 wt % carbon-nanotube dispersion during an immersion time of 3 h. The transparent conducting films were quite flexible and maintained their properties even after crumpling.
BNC layers have also been investigated as loudspeaker vibration films. It was demonstrated that these films have the advantages of simple manufacturing by bacterial biofabrication, good mechanical properties and thermal stability, good fundamental characteristics of a sound-vibration film, high specific elasticity and loss factor, long service life, and environmental friendliness.
link title A simple, rapid method for developing conductive, ultrafine, and high aspect ratio silver nanowires (AgNWs) is reported. Transparent and flexible nanocomposites were fashioned from bacterial cellulose (BC) and AgNWs in a very straightforward and direct manner without the addition of materials or the need for specific facilities. The as-prepared BC/AgNWs composite thin films were able to demonstrate acceptable transparency (near 80% at 550 nm), high flexibility, good mechanical strength (18.95 MPa) and stable conductivity (7.46 Ω sq−1) under various bending states.
Miguel Gama, Paul Gatenholm, Dieter Klemm, 2017, CRC Press
Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is an emerging nanomaterial with unique properties produced by several species of ubiquitous fermentation bacteria, most importantly Gluconacetobacter xylinus, previously known as Acetobacter xylinum. BNC has been used for a variety of commercial applications including textiles, cosmetics, and food products, and it has a high potential for medical applications.
Bacterial NanoCellulose: A Sophisticated Multifunctional Material provides the state of the art of scientific knowledge about the mechanism of cellulose production by bacteria along with pointing out challenges in expansion of BNC production in large scale. It provides the latest update on BNC structure and its modification, as well as comprehensive information about current and future applications of BNC.
- 2012 - Altering the growth conditions of Gluconacetobacter xylinus to maximize the yield of bacterial cellulose
- 2019 - Bacterial nanocellulose: Present status, biomedical applications and future perspectives
- 2018 - Bacterial cellulose yield increased over 500% by supplementation of medium with vegetable oil
- Nanocellulose - From Nature to High Performance Tailored Materials, 2012, Dufresne, Alain
Design and Fashion Style
Successful realization of natural self-grown fashion (SGF) has tremendous creative and practical potential, as well as a profound ecological effect on the fashion industry and the environment. From this publication.
"Growing materials has become more and more popular in design, so maybe growing things is closer and easier than we think," said Janusz.
See this article.
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Cultures and applications
Nata de Coco aka Komagataeibacter xylinus
This one is the main bacteria that is commonly used, but has many names and strains....
Komagataeibacter xylinus, formerly known as Acetobacter xylinum or Gluconacetobacter xylinus
Nata de Soya
It's what the honfies used for their SOYA C(O)U(L)TURE
Gluconacetobacter hansenii (present from Isaac from Chile)
What is it?
the name of your traveling companion is Gluconacetobacter hansenii (cellulose strain).
Below is the media for optimal cellulose production, but we use it for culturing etc.
Hestrin–Schramm (HS) medium (for 500mL)
- 2.5g yeast extract (0.5% w/v)
- 2.5g peptone (0.5% w/v)
- 1.35g Na2HPO4 (0.27% w/v)
- 0.75g citric acid (0.15% w/v)
- 10g glucose (2%w/v) - NB autoclave this separately as 20% glucose, and add 50ml to 450ml of the rest of the media
Hestrin–Schramm (HS) medium (for 1L)
- 5g yeast extract (0.5% w/v)
- 5g peptone (0.5% w/v)
- 2.7g Na2HPO4 (0.27% w/v)
- 1.5g citric acid (0.15% w/v)
- 20g glucose (2%w/v) - NB autoclave this separately as 20% glucose, and add 50ml to 450ml of the rest of the media
I think is no problem with split the amount I gave you. To accomplish it, you should inoculate the media with a piece of the cellulose-bacteria layer and left it growing without agitation at room temperature (you only have to be careful with the contamination at the moment of inoculation!).
You can get a lot more information from this group of iGEM: http://2014.igem.org/Team:Imperial
If you are interested on dye the cellulose with bacterial pigments, we usually do this way:
- grow the cellulose paper
- remove the excess of media
- use the cellulose paper as substrate, by plating (with L-shape spreader) a pigment producer O.N. bacterial culture over the wet cellulose paper.
- Bacterias will grow on that side of the paper and produce the dye. If you want to have both sides dyed, repeat the process on the other side.
I hope it is clear :)
have a good time on Japan and don't hesitate to ask me if you need something.
Experiments in Lifepatch
Experiments at Home - Zürich
The "pure" medium
Kinda like the HS medium...
- First the glucose ("Traubenzucker" also known as dextrose) was boiled for 15 min, 40g / 200 ml "destillatgleiches Wasser" (kinda distilled water).
- 0.8 l of "destillatgleiches Wasser" and a little bit of tap-water, boiled for a while
- 5g Yeast Extract (really old one i found in my box)
- 5g Peptone
- 1.5g Citric Acid
- 2.7g K2HPO4 (Monopotassium phosphate or Dipotassium phosphate? I forgot... had only Potassium instead of Sodium...)
- kinda 50 ml of the glucose solution... maybe 13-18g of glucose
- 0.08 l of Acetobacter xylenum starter-culture
Swiss Kitchen Recpie
- 3l Water
- 20g Cenovis
- 4.5g Citric Acid
- 3g Fertilizer, liquid (NPK 4-5-6 with trace elements, Mioplant Orchideendünger)
- ca 25g of Glucose aka "Traubenzucker"
Boiled for 10 min in a pot, then left to cool down in 1.5 l glassjar, adding few small pieces of pellicle from starter culture, and flat plastic bowl. After cooling adding the following
- Jar: 0.08 l of Acetobacter xylenum starter-culture
- Bowl: 0.15 l of Acetobacter xylenum starter-culture
- 0.7l Coconut water (Alnatura Coco drink)
- 2l Water
- 4.5g Citric Acid
- 3g Fertilizer, liquid (NPK 4-5-6 with trace elements, Mioplant Orchideendünger)
- 1g K2HPO4 (Dipotassium phosphate)
- 3 tablespoons of Glucose aka "Traubenzucker"
Boiled for 10 min in a pot, then left to cool down in 1 l glassjar, adding few small pieces of pellicle from starter culture, and flat plastic bowl. After cooling adding the following
- Jar: 0.08 l of Acetobacter xylenum starter-culture
- Bowl: 0.1 l of Acetobacter xylenum starter-culture
Akbar's Super Fermentation Recipe
How to make it
Tranlating the book
Langkah-langkah pembuatan "Nata"
1. Air kelapa disaring mengggunakan kain saring dan ditampung ke dalam panci bersih.
1. Coconut water is filtered using a filter cloth and accommodated in a clean pan.
2. Ambillah 10 liter air kelapa yang telah disaring dan masukkan ke dalam panci lain yang telah bersih.
2. Take 10 liters of filtered coconut water and put it in another clean pan.
3. Tambahkan gula pasir 5 sendok makan, ragi roti 1 sendok makan penuh, garam inggris 1/4 sendok teh, asam cuka biang 10 sendok makan (40 sendok makan jika menggunakan cuka makan), kemudian aduk sampai larut.
3 Add 5 tablespoons of sugar, yeast bread 1 full tablespoon, ZA 1 full tablespoon, 1/4 teaspoon British salt, sour vinegar 10 tablespoons (40 tablespoons if using vinegar), then stir until dissolved.
4. Godoglah campuram air kelapa tersebut sampai mendidih selama 15 menit.
4. Boil mix the coconut water until it boils for 15 minutes.
5. Tuangkan air kelapa yang masih panas ke dalam loyang/baki plastik bersih yang sudah disiapkan sebelumnya. Setuao baki diisi 1,5 liter air kelapa.
5. Pour hot coconut water into a clean plastic tray / tray that has been prepared previously. As old as the tray is filled with 1.5 liters of coconut water.
6. Tutuplah cepat-cepat baki yang sudah berisi air kelapa oleh selembar kertas koran.
6. Close the tray that is already filled with coconut water by a piece of newspaper.
7. Dinginkan baki air kelapa di ruang penyimpanan selama +/- 5 jam.
7. Cool the coconut water tray in the storage room for +/- 5 hours.
8. Tambahkan bibit nata ke dalam wadah air kelapa yang sudah dingin secara hati-hati. Botol bibit nata bisa digunakan untuk 5 baki loyang.
8. Add the nata seeds to the carefully cooled container of coconut water. Nata seedling bottles can be used for 5 baking trays.
9. Susunlah baki/loyang air kelapa di atas rak dalam ruang khusus, kemudian diamkan selama 8 hari. Dengan catatan tidak boleh dibuka dan digerak-gerakkan sebelum penyimpananberakhir.
9. Arrange the remaining coconut water / tray on a rack in a separate room, then let it sit for 8 days. The note cannot be opened and moved before the last storage.
10. Amibillah lapisan nata yang relah terbentuk dari tiap-tiap loyang/baki.
10. Take the layers of nata that have formed from each pan / tray.
11. Ambillah lapisan atau selaput tipis pada permukaan lapisan nata dengan cara ditarik hati-hati.
11. Take a thin layer or membrane on the surface of the nata layer by carefully pulling.
12. Cucilah lapisan nata dengan air bersih sampai tidak ada kotoran atau padatan lain yang menempel.
12. Wash the layer of nata with clean water until there is no dirt or other solids attached.
13. Potong-potong lapisan nata dengang lapisan yang tajam berbentuk kubus kecil-kecil.
13. Cut a layer of nata with a sharp layer into small cubes.
14. Rendamlah potongan nata dengan air bersih sampai terendam semuanya selama 2-3 hari.
14. Soak the nata pieces with clean water until they are all submerged for 2-3 days.
15. Cucilah hasil rendaman sampai bersih dengan cara diremas-remas. Apabila potongan nata tersebut dicipi masih terasa asam harus dilanjutkan dengan perepbusan.
15. Wash the results of the marinade thoroughly by squeezing. If the chopped nata is still sour, it must be continued with the repair.
16. Rebuslah ptongan nata selama +/- menit di dalam panci email atau panci stainless sehingga kalau dicicipi, rasa asam dari potongan nata benar-benar sudah hilang.
16. Boil a slice of nata for +/- 30 minutes in an email pan or stainless pan so that when tasted, the sour taste of the nata chunks is completely gone.
17. Tiriskan hasil rebusan di dalam ayakan sampai airnya sebanyak-banyaknya keluar.
17. Drain the stew in a sieve until the water as much as possible comes out.
18. Godoglah ptongan nata dengan air gula selama 30 menit dengan perbandingan: 1 kg potongan nata + air 1 liter (5 gelas minumum) + gula pasir 1/2 kg.
18. Boil chunks of nata with sugar water for 30 minutes by comparison: 1 kg of nata pieces + 1 liter of water (5 cups of drinking water) + 1/2 kg of sugar.
19. Tambahkan air 1/2 bagian dari air yang ditambahkan pada penggodogan no. 18, kemudian dilanjutkan penggodogannya selama 15 menit lagi.
19. Add water 1/2 part of the water added to modification no. 18, then continue to tease for another 15 minutes.
20. Masukkan potongan nata yang masih panas ke dalam kontong plastik ukuran 1 kg, sambil ditimbang sebanyak 1/4 kg, kemudian tambah dengan air gula godogan sampai bungkusan plastik beratnya menjadi 1/2 kg.
20. Insert the hot nata pieces into a 1 kg plastic container, weighing 1/4 kg, then add the boiled sugar water until the plastic bag weighs 1/2 kg.
21. Ikatlah rapat-rapat bungkusan plastik tersebut hingga aman untuk disimpan dan dijual.
21. Tighten the plastic wrap securely to secure and store.
NATA DE COCO FROM COCONUT WATER
Taken from this website
- Coconut water
- Acetic acid
- Refined sugar
- Nata starter
- Ammonium phosphate
- Weighing scale
- Wide-mouthed glass jars or basins
- The collected coconut water is filtered through a cheesecloth. One hundred (100 gms.) refined sugar and 5 grams monobasic ammonium phosphate is mixed for every liter of coconut water in a container. The container is covered and the mixture allowed to boil. It is then allowed to cool after boiling and 6.9 ml. of glacial acetic acid is added.
- 110-150 ml. of starter (available at ITDI) is added to the mixture. It is subsequently transferred to big mouthed clean jars leaving ample space atop mixture and covered with clean cheese cloth. The culture is allowed to grow at room temperature for 15 days or more. Note: Do not move jars during growth period.
- Harvest is ready after 15 days or more, making sure that all conditions are aseptic so as to enable one to reuse the remaining liquid which serves as starter for succeeding preparations.
Dessert Making. The “nata” is cut into cubes and is subjected to a series of boiling with fresh water until acidity is totally removed. One kilo of refined sugar is added for every kilo of nata and are mixed. It is brought to boiling until the “nata” cubes become transparent.
Where to get it?
Local sources "Nata de Coco"
Buy it online
Wild type isolation - Akbar's Workshop Protocal Translated
A. Making nata seedlings
- . Pineapple peeled, washed to produce pineapple meat. Pineapple meat is cut into small pieces, crushed, and the pulp is taken.
- . Pineapple pulp mixed with sugar and cooking water in a ratio of 6: 1: 3 until evenly distributed.
- . Put the mixture in a clean jar and cover in a filter cloth. Let stand for 2-3 weeks.
- . Leave uninterrupted for 2-3 weeks until a white layer or acetobacter xylinum seedlings are formed.
B. How to make nata:
- . Filter coconut water using a filter cloth then bring to a boil and chill.
- . Mix granulated sugar (100 g / l coconut water), 20 ml vinegar acid / l coconut water and Acetobacter xylinum seeds (170 ml) into coconut water in a mixing pan, then stir until evenly distributed. The mixture has acidity (pH) 3-4.
- . Enter the mixture into a natural jar with a mixture height of 4-5 cm, then cover with a cloth. Place the jar in a clean and safe place.
- . After 15-20 days of the fermentation process, a layer of nata is formed on the surface of the liquid with a thickness of 1-2 cm. Nata layer with a weight of + 200 g. The liquid under the nata is the liquid of the seed that can be used for making the next nata.
- . The nata layer is carefully removed using a clean fork or clamp so that the liquid under the layer is not polluted. The liquid under the nata can be used as seedling liquid in subsequent processing.
- . Remove the membrane attached to the bottom of the nata, washed and cut in the form of cubes with a size of 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm and washed. Pour and soak the nata de coco pieces in a plastic bucket for 3 days and replace the immersion water every day. After that, nata boiled until boiling at 110oC for.
- . For 10-20 minutes. The purpose of soaking and boiling is to eliminate the sour taste.
- . Nata is put in the syrup then simmer at a temperature of 100oC + 15 minutes, after that if necessary can be added to the ingredients of vanilla or other fragrance and salt to taste, then left for 1 night. Make nata syrup in the ratio of 3 kg of cut nata products, 2 kg of sugar and 4.5 l of water are needed. First the sugar is poured into water, heat until dissolved and then strain.
- . Next, nata is packed in a plastic bag or jam jar with a ratio between solids and 3: 1 liquid, the bottle is tightly closed, then boiled in boiling water for 30 minutes. Lift and cool in the air with the lid on the bottom, then the bottle is labeled and ready to be marketed.
- Highly conductive and stretchable conductors fabricated from bacterial cellulose https://www.nature.com/articles/am201234
- 3D printing with cellulose materials https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-018-1888-y
- Biomimetic 4D printing https://www.nature.com/articles/nmat4544#abstract
- Preparation of Eco-Friendly Transparent Electrode for Flexible Device Using Cellulose Substrate https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12221-019-1038-7
- Highly flexible, transparent, and conductive silver nanowire-attached bacterial cellulose conductors https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-018-1773-8
- Microbial Production of Biopolymers and Polymer Precursors: Applications and Perspectives https://books.google.co.id/books?id=Vu9kc0-uSJYC
- Aqualose IGEM2014 bacterial cellulose by engineering Gluconacetobacter xylinus http://2014.igem.org/Team:Imperial/Protocols#gluconacetobacter
- How to Make Nata De Coco at Home https://steemit.com/coconut/@the3brother/how-to-make-nata-de-coco-at-home-fresh-menu-and-favors-to-open-fasting-69a0dcd7f935a
- Sequence-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal compositions of multiple kombucha https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740002013001846 Download here: File:Sequence-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal compositions ofmultiple kombucha.pdf
- ETHZ Bacterial nanocellulose foams made in 2019: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xAZtaAyUhxM
- multi aplikasi: https://www.kompasiana.com/ajuskoto/550e4d4fa33311c12dba80da/multiaplikasi-nata-de-coco